Click on link below, and then image to download a copy 

Wilson, G. R. and M. Edwards “Professional kangaroo population control leads to better animal welfare, conservation outcomes and avoids waste.” Australian Zoologist 0(0): DOI:

Wilson, G (2018) The Failure of Kangaroo Harvesting Fails Animal Welfare, Australasian Science Jan page 39

Wilson, G. (2017), Review of ‘Carnivores of Australia: Past, Present and Future Alistair Glen and Chris Dickman, eds. CSIRO Publishing,. Austral Ecology, 42: e12-e13. doi:10.1111/aec.12435

Wilson, G. (2018). Co-production of livestock and kangaroos. Conservation through Sustainable Use of Wildlife Conference 30 August – 1 September 2016 (Eds) G. Baxter and T. Pople. Brisbane, University of Qld. Brisbane.

Wilson, G., M. W. Hayward and C. Wilson (2018). Trials of Market-based Incentives to Conserve Wildlife. Conservation through Sustainable Use of Wildlife Conference 30 August – 1 September 2016 (Eds) G. Baxter and T. Pople. Brisbane, University of Qld.

Wilson, G. R., M. W. Hayward and C. Wilson (2017). Market-Based Incentives and Private Ownership of Wildlife to Remedy Shortfalls in Government Funding for Conservation.  Conservation Letters:10  485 492.

Wilson G. (2012). Native Animals in Food Production. In: Food Security in Australia: challenges and prospects for the future (Ed) Farmar-Bowers, Q. Millar, J. and Higgins, V. (Springer Publishing).

Wilson, G. and Smits, J. (2012). Indigenous land use and conservation in the Anangu lands of central Australia. In: Conservation through sustainable use (Eds) John Merson, Rosie Cooney and Paul Brown. (Institute of Environmental Studies, University of New South Wales Press).

Wilson G. and Smits, J. (2012). Conservation for culture and livelihoods – Angas Downs, NT. In: Figgis, P., Fitzsimons, J. and Irving, J. (eds). Innovation for 21st Century Conservation.  Australian Committee for IUCN, Sydney.

Environmental Management Systems as Adaptive Natural Resource Management: Case Studies from Agriculture, George Wilson, Melanie Edwards, Genevieve Carruthers (2009) In Adaptive Environmental Management; A Practitioner’s Guide, Allan, Catherine; Stankey, George Henry (Eds.) Springer, jointly published with CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia. 2009, XVI, 352 p.

Wilson, G., Edwards, M. and Smits, J. (2010). Support for Indigenous wildlife management in Australia to enable sustainable use. Wildlife Research 37(3) 255–263.

Cooney, R., Archer, M., Baumber, A., Ampt, P., Wilson, G., Smits, J., Webb, G. (2011). THINKK again: getting the facts straight on kangaroo harvesting and conservation. Science Under Siege (Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman).

Kuka Kanyini, Australian Indigenous Adaptive Management, George Wilson, Margaret Woodrow,(2009)  In Adaptive Environmental Management; A Practitioner’s Guide, Allan, Catherine; Stankey, George Henry (Eds.) Springer, jointly published with CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia. 2009, XVI, 352 p.

Cooney, R., Baumber, A., Ampt, P. and Wilson, G. (2009). Sharing Skippy: how can landholders be involved in kangaroo production in Australia? The Rangeland Journal 31, 283-92.

Kangaroos and Greenhouse gases

On 5 August 2008, the Society for Conservation Biology in USA published a report by AWS that describes how kangaroos on the extensive rangelands could be utilised to help reduce Australia’s methane emissions. It proposes that using kangaroos in lieu of cattle and sheep to produce meat on the rangelands will help slow climate change. The article was referred to in the Review to the Australian Government by Prof Ross Garnaut published on 30 Sep 08.

Wilson, G. and Edwards, M. (2008). Native wildlife on rangelands to minimize methane and produce lower-emission meat: kangaroos versus livestock. Conservation Letters 1, 119-128.

The paper was the most accessed by the journal in 2008. It was referred to by the Times of London, the New York Times, BBC TV, and News Scientist amongst others. A popular version ‘Roo diet placed on the Greenhouse menu’ has been published by Australasian Science and can also be downloaded.

Aboriginal Wildlife Management

Angas Downs Indigenous Protected Area

Angas Downs pastoral lease in Northern Territory south west of Alice Springs is a biologically and culturally rich 3000 sq km property held by the Imanpa Development Association on behalf of the nearby Imanpa community. It is important to Aboriginal people in the region and has significant tjukurpa places and sacred sites. On 10 June 2008 it was declared an Indigenous Protected Area and has a Working on Country program that provides employment for eight Anangu Rangers. [Download not found]

AWS prepared the IPA plan of management that is providing guidance for further developments on Angas Downs, integration of the cattle herd with conservation objectives and range of conservation initiatives designed to increase numbers of native species desired by Anangu in particular – emu, kangaroos and quandong fruit.

More information on Angas Downs. Angas Downs Monitoring 2009 (800 downloads)

Indigenous wildlife management – scientific research support

In an opinion piece in the Journal Wildlife Research published in May 2010 AWS outlines how science could play a greater role in ensuring that Indigenous wildlife harvesting is sustainable. The paper discusses the role of Indigenous wildlife use in helping to address community health and employment challenges facing Indigenous Australians in remote and rural areas.
An abstract is available on the CSIRO website at

Paper is available from our downloads – [Download not found]

We are anticipate that the paper will lead to positive outcomes for Indigenous wildlife managers and a re-distribution of investments to what we hear Indigenous people saying is a high priority.

Anangu Pitjantjatjara Regional Wildlife Management

AWS prepared a Regional Wildlife Management Plan for the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Lands in South Australia. It presents key features of the wildlife resources in the area, and offers options for sustainable use and enterprise development of the land and the fauna and flora in a culturally appropriate manner. The Plan focuses on the theme Kuka Kanyini – ‘looking after game animals’.

  • Kuka Kanyin in international journal ‘Game and Wildlife Science’.

Other documents available from AWS

  • APY Regional Wildlife Management Plan.
  • A brochure summarising key features of the RMP.
  • Video in Pitjantjatjara language summarising the project.

Other Indigenous Publications and Reports

  • Draft National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Rural Industries Strategy, (1994) ATSIC Woden, ISBN 0 642 22272x.
  • Implementing the Rural Industries Strategy at Lake Tyers Aboriginal Trust, Lake Entrance, Victoria (1995) ACIL Canberra.
  • Economic Development Plan for the ATSIC Wagga Wagga Region (June 1998) Binaal Billa Regional Council, Wagga – with FOCUS Pty Ltd.
  • Aboriginal aspirations for the Use of their land, Component 4 of National Land Management Research Project 1999 Indigenous Land Corporation, Adelaide.
  • Property plan for Minjelha Dhagun (Mt Barney) with FOCUS Pty Ltd for Yugambeh people at Beaudesert Qld – funding by Indigenous Land.
  • Aboriginals and Wildlife Management. Wilson G R (1989). Australasian Wildlife Management Society Conference, Melbourne.
  • A database for aboriginal lands – a preliminary assessment of strategic options for land use. Wilson G R Database descriptions and location information Yapp G & Dyce P (1993) a Report to ATSIC by Bureau of Resource Sciences.

Assessment of Wild Animal Population Sizes

Aerial surveys

In 2008, participation in national waterbird survey by Professor Richard Kingsford, UNSW. Supported the early development of aerial survey in Australia including first large area survey with Graeme Caughley.

  • Numbers Distribution and Harvesting Rate of Kangaroos on the Inland Plains of New South Plains of New South Wales. Caughley G, Sinclair, R G and Wilson G R (1977). Australian Wildlife Research 4:99-108.
  • Time of Day and Aerial Counts of Grey Kangaroos. Hill G J E, Barnes A and Wilson G R (1985). Journal of Wildlife Management 49:843-849.
  • Correcting for Incomplete Sighting in Aerial Surveys of Kangaroos. Barnes A, Hill G J E and Wilson G R (1986). Australian Wildlife Research 13:339-348.
  • An Aerial Survey of Feral Pigs and Emus in South Eastern Queensland. Wilson G R, Hill G J E and Barnes A (1987). Australian Wildlife Research 14: 515-520.
  • The Effect of Drought on Kangaroo Populations: A Comment. Hill G J E, Barnes A and Wilson G R (1987). Journal of Wildlife Management. 51(3):602-603.
  • Grey Kangaroos on Wheat Crops in Southern Queensland. Hill G J E, Barnes A and Wilson G R (1988). Australian Wildlife Research 15:111-117.
  • Aerial Survey Techniques. Wilson G R (1987). SCA Vertebrate Pests Conference, Coolangatta.

Trials of Sustainable Use of Wildlife as an aid to conservation

Trials of Wildlife Management Conservancy and Sustainable Wildlife Enterprises

Conservation through commercial use of wildlife; Kangaroos and other wildlife as alternative livestock for the pastoral industry.

Related recent publications are available on the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation web site

Birds and Reptiles

* Sustainable economic use of Australian reptiles and birds; Can controlled trade improve conservation? (1995) Report to the RIRDC, ACIL, Canberra – Download PDF

Kangaroo biology and management

A range of publications going back many years including both strategic and scienciific. Determination of the goals and objectives for kangaroo management quotas and harvest rates, and analysis of commercial opportunities. Analysis of the age structure of kangaroos including the aging of five thousand kangaroos concluding that over NSW more than 10% of the population was greater than ten years old in the face of more than ten years “heavy” shooting.

  • Age Structure of Populations of Kangaroos (Macropodidae) Taken by Professional Shooters in New South Wales. Wilson G R (1975). Australian Wildlife Research 2:1-9.
  • Haematology of the Red Kangaroos Wilson G R and Hoskins LP (1975) Australian Veterinary Journal 51 146
  • The Determination of the Most Suitable Drug for the Immobilization and Restraint of Kangaroo Using Projectile Syringes. Wilson G R (1975). M.V.Sc. Thesis, University of Sydney.
  • How Kangaroos Swim. Wilson G R (1974). Search 5:11-12.
  • Molluscum contagiosum in a Red Kangaroo. Bagnall B and Wilson G R (1974). Australian Journal of Dermatology 15:115-120.
  • The Restraint of Kangaroos Using Etorphine- Acepromazine and Etorphine- Methotrimeprazine Mixtures. Wilson G R (1974). Australian Veterinary Journal 50:146-149.
  • Intramuscular Anaesthesia in the Red Kangaroo. Wilson G R (1976). Australian Veterinary Practitioner 6:51-62.
  • The Distribution of the Yellow Footed Rock Wallaby in NSW. Wilson G R, Gerritsen J and Milthorpe P L (1976). Australian Wildlife Research 3:73- 78.
  • Improving the Management of Kangaroos. Wilson G R (1988). in D Lunney and G Grigg (eds) Kangaroo Harvesting and the Conservation of Arid and Semi-Arid Lands: Proceeding of a Royal Zoological Society (NSW) Conference May 14 1988; University of New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 24(3):158-160.
  • Reintroduction of macropods in Australia – a review. Short, J, Bradshaw, S D, Giles, J, Prince, R I T, and Wilson, G R (1992). Biological Conservation 62: 189-204
  • A plan for the management of grey kangaroos at the Royal Canberra Golf Course, (1995) ACIL, Canberra.
  • The Management of Kangaroos. Wilson G R (1974). Parks and Wildlife 1:111-119.
  • Wildlife Management in Australia with Special Reference to Kangaroo. Wilson G R (1975). Paper presented at Australian Veterinary Conference, Hobart.

Red deer and grouse in Scotland

Comparison of objectives, goals and management procedures for Red Deer and Grouse in Scotland and Kangaroos in Australia.

Other Publications and Reports

  • A design for the proposed FATE Management Trial of Conservation through Sustainable Commercial Use of Wildlife on the Rangelands. (2001) Report to Australian Museum.
  • Potential and Problems in Using Wild Animal Resources. Wilson G R (1990). Proceedings Australian Society Animal Production 18:102-104.
  • Wild Animal Resources; their use by Aboriginal communities. Wilson GR, McNee A, Platts, P (1992) BRR Special Publication, AGPS Canberra.
  • Natural History of Metatheria. Russell E M, Lee A K and Wilson, G R (1989). pp 505-526 in Walton D W and Richardson B J (eds), Fauna of Australia, Mammalia. Vol 1b. Bureau of Flora and Fauna, AGPS, Canberra.
  • Ecologically Sustainable Development: An animal industries or veterinary perspective. Wilson G R (1991) In: Proceedings of a Regional Forum on Sustainable Agriculture; February 25th 1991, Yass, NSW. Australian Institute of Agricultural Science Occasional Publication Number 67.

New and Emerging Animal and Plant Industries

  • Can Australian Camel Racing be internationally competitive? Can Australian Camel Racing be internationally competitive? (May 1999) Rural Industries Research and Development Corporations, Canberra. Download PDF – small
  • Australian Horses as a Primary Industry. Pilkington, M and Wilson GR (1993) Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra.

Endangered and Threatened Species

  • The Conservation Status of Australian Animals. Ride W D L and Wilson G R (1982). in Species at Risk: Research in Australia (Eds. Groves R H and Ride W D L) Australian Academy of Science, Canberra.
  • Towards Informed Management. Ride W D L and Wilson G R (1982). in Species at Risk: Research in Australia (Eds. Groves R H and Ride W D L) Australian Academy of Science, Canberra.
  • Feasibility Study of options for movement of Koalas from Kangaroo Island to forests of Western NSW (1997)- Australian Geographic Society, Sydney.
  • The Status of the Yellow- Footed Rock- Wallaby in New South Wales. Wilson G R (1974). Journal of the Australian Mammal Society 1:305.
  • Report of the Australian Delegation to the Third Meeting of Parties of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna, New Delhi. Wilson G R (1981). Department of Foreign Affairs, Canberra
  • Endangered Animals – An Overview. Wilson G R (1983). Australian Ranger Bulletin 2(3):76- 78.
  • Submission to Senate Select Committee on Animal Welfare, Wilson G R (1984). Canberra.
  • Animal Welfare Policies. Report to DPIE (1987). Internal Report DPIE Canberra.


Portee and Southern Hairy-nosed wombats

Getting close to Australian wildlife in natural environments is often difficult. AWS has prepared a report with a team from Flinders University and Sustainable Tourism CRC which describes how visitors to Portee Station on the Murray River will be able to see the natural behaviour of hairy-nosed wombats and red kangaroos up close without disturbing them. The feasibility study was prepared with support from the DITR Tourism and Conservation Partnerships program. The initiative aims to increase occupancy rate of Portee station. For further information on Portee Station visit their website.

  • Feasability Report for integrating wildlife into farmstay tourism on Portee.
Wildlife touring

Development of options for tourism particularly by aircraft to remote locations

Integration of Conservation and Development

National Conservation Strategy

Development of the National Conservation Strategy for Australia including the bringing together of divergent and opposing views on conservation and development and their blending into a consensus agreement.

  • A National Conservation Strategy for Australia. Wilson G R (1981). Habitat 9:8-10.

Further Publications and Reports

* Management Problems; a National Conservation Strategy for Australia. Wilson G R and Shevlin M (1983). in Resource Management ed Wadhwa L C, James Cook University of North Queensland.
* Developing Complementary Livestock Industries. Wilson G R (1990). Keynote Address to Australian Rangelands Conference, Carnarvon, Western Australia.
* In Search of Sustainable Development. Wilson G R (1990). Australian Veterinary Journal 67:N329.
* Review of the processes for obtaining environmental and resource development clearance for an expansion of the NW Shelf Natural Gas project, (1995) ACil, Canberra.
* Catchment Management Issues in the Snowy Mountains Area ( February 1996) ACIL Discussion Paper No3 for the Snowy Water and Environment Working Group on the Corporatisation of the Snowy Mountains Hydro Electric Authority.

Feral Animals and Pest Control


* Opportunities and constraints on the Commercial use of Carp in NSW (April 1998) NSW Department of State and Regional Development Port Macquarie.
* Fishing Techniques and Residues – Possible constraints on the Commercial Development of Carp in NSW (April 1999) NSW Department of State and Regional Development Port Macquarie NSW.


Assessment of the economic impact of rabbits on agricultural production for the International Wool Secretariat.

Coordination of procedures for the introduction (but not the release) of rabbit calicivirus to Australia by CSIRO and conservation and agriculture departments.

* The Case against Rabbits (1995) Report for the Proponent Committee for the introduction of Rabbit Calici Disease into Australia.
* RHD Introduction to Australia, Report of the Interim Coordinator (May 1994). Report to the Proponent Committee and the Meat Research Corporation.

Further Publications and Reports

* Planning; the Wildlife Perspective. Wilson G R (1992). in O’Brien, P & Berry, G (eds) ‘Wildlife Rabies Contingency Planning in Australia’. Bureau of Rural Resources Proceedings No 11. AGPS, Canberra.
* Pest Animals in Australia; A survey of introduced wild animals. Wilson G R, Dexter N, O’Brien, P H, Bomford M (1992) Kangaroo Press and Bureau of Rural Resources, Sydney.
* A Note on Feral Mammal Control in New Zealand. Wilson G R (1975). Journal of the Australian Mammal Society 1:399-400.
* National Planning for Feral Animal Control. Wilson G R (1985). in Proceedings of Regional Inspectors Workshop at Inglewood, Rural Lands Protection Board, Brisbane.

Wildlife Disease and Quarantine Management

AWS has developed a policy statement for the Australasian Wildlife Management Society on Managing Disease in Wildlife Populations

Red Grouse

* Haematology, Weight and Condition of Captive Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) infected with Caecal Threadworm (Trichostrongylus tenuis). Wilson G R and Wilson L P (1978). Research in Veterinary Science 25:331- 336.
* Effects of the Caecal Threadworm Trichostrongylus tenuis Upon Red Grouse. Wilson G R (1979). PhD Thesis, University of Aberdeen.
* Trichostrongylus of Red Grouse in Scotland. Wilson G R (1981). in Wildlife Diseases of the Pacific Basin and Other Countries. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference of the Wildlife Diseases Association. Sydney.
* The Prevalence of Caecal Threadworms (Trichostrongylus tenuis) in Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus). Wilson G R (1983). Oecologia 58:265-269.
* Another Look at Grouse Disease. Wilson G R (1977). Country Landowner 28:30-31.
* Threadworms in Red Grouse. Wilson G R (1978). Annual Report (1978) The Game Conservancy, Fordingbridge.
* Malarial-Type Parasites in Red Grouse. Wilson G R and Wilson L P (1978). Annual Report (1978) the Game Conservancy, Fordingbridge.

Further Publications and Reports

* Review of Australia’s Quarantine Policies and Programs (1996) Submission to the Australian Quarantine Review Committee prepared for the National Farmers Federation.
* Review of options for a traceback system for tracking sheep carcases. (1996) Report to Sheepmeat Council, Funded by Meat Research Corporation, Sydney
* Quarantine processes and the management of horse disease emergencies (1995) Workshop report and background papers, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.
* Wildlife and Exotic Animal Disease Emergencies in Australia: Planning an Effective Response to an Outbreak. Wilson G R and O’Brien P (1989). International Journal of Disaster Management 1,3:30-36.
* Workshop on quarantine processes and horse disease emergencies, (1995) Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, (RIRDC) Canberra.

Site Footer